ICLA Standard III: Study Session 4

In preparation of the Idaho Comprehensive Literacy Assessment (ICLA) Standard III, I am creating a series of blog posts from my study notes and the study guide. The subjects are organized in alphabetical order and I will be completing five subjects at a time. I am in hopes that by sharing, I can provide assistance to others studying for the ICLA or similar literacy tests for pre-service teachers.

Today's Subjects

Echo(ic) reading
students repeats what the teacher reads. Used for emergent readers to build fluency and expression.

The following video demonstrates how to use this strategy in a small group. Note how the teacher is using pointing as she reads and as the students do. This is because pointing helps students develop print concepts as well as helps them follow along and know where they are and what words are being read. 

  • Select a book related to topic, usually predictable with a limited print. 
  • First read the entire book modeling what a fluent reader would sound like and do. 
  • Teacher models fluent reading of a short segment, usually one sentence. 
  • Teacher has students repeat or echo the segment she just read.
  • Teacher reads next sentence and has echo… repeat until done.

Explicit comprehension instruction
Assess the passages for opportunities to model the comprehension strategy. Explicit training and teacher modeling. Guided practice and independent practice.

Effective comprehension strategy instruction is explicit
Research shows that explicit teaching techniques are particularly effective for comprehension strategy instruction. In explicit instruction, teachers tell readers why and when they should use strategies, what strategies to use, and how to apply them. The steps of explicit instruction typically include direct explanation, teacher modeling ("thinking aloud"), guided practice, and application.
  • Direct explanation - The teacher explains to students why the strategy helps comprehension and when to apply the strategy.
  • Modeling - The teacher models, or demonstrates, how to apply the strategy, usually by "thinking aloud" while reading the text that the students are using.
  • Guided practice - The teacher guides and assists students as they learn how and when to apply the strategy.
  • Application - The teacher helps students practice the strategy until they can apply it independently.
Effective comprehension strategy instruction can be accomplished through cooperative learning, which involves students working together as partners or in small groups on clearly defined tasks. Cooperative learning instruction has been used successfully to teach comprehension strategies. Students work together to understand texts, helping each other learn and apply comprehension strategies. Teachers help students learn to work in groups. Teachers also provide modeling of the comprehension strategies.


1. judgement or performance as process or product of change.
2. the process of testing, appraising and judging achievement, growth, product, process or changes in these frequently through the use of formal and informal tests and techniques

Formative assessments
is a process used by teachers that provides actionable feedback to adjust teaching and learning strategies for improving student self-assessment, reflection, and attainment of curricular learning goals. Using formative assessments with struggling readers can help a teacher to see if progress is being made before it is too late to change his/her instructional approach.

Frustration reading level
a readability or grade level of material that is too difficult to be read successfully by a student, even with normal classroom instruction and support.

The chart below describes each reading level:
easy text for a student to read with few word-identification problems and 
high comprehension. Although suggested criteria vary, better than
99 percent word-identification accuracy and better than 90 percent 
comprehension are often used as standards in judging whether a student is 
reading at this level. 
challenging text, but not frustrating for the student of read successfully 
with normal classroom instruction and support. Although suggested criteria 
vary, better than 95 percent word-identification accuracy and better than 
75 percent comprehension are often used as standards in judging 
whether a student is reading at this level. 
Difficult text, less than 90 percent accuracy in word identification and less 
than 50 percent comprehension are often used standards in judging whether 
a student is reading at this level.
Josie is a second grader whose teacher administered an Informal Reading Inventory
to evaluate her reading. Her scores on the second grade passage were:
Word recognition – 79% Comprehension – 44%

Based on the results of the test, what could you conclude about this assessment?
a. Second grade books would be at Josie’s instructional reading level.
b. Josie is strong in word recognition but weak in comprehension.
c. Josie’s scores fall in the average range based on stanines, so there is no
need for intervention.

d. Second grade books would be at Josie’s frustration reading level.

In addition, I have created a Quizlet set of the vocabulary words found here. On Quizlet, I am very fond of playing the matching game where you can drag corresponding items (term to definition) onto each other to make them disappear. I also like to create a test on Quizlet with multiple choice, true or false, and matching to assess my knowledge of all the vocabulary words.

Good Luck!

No comments:

Post a Comment

Thank you for reading my post. Please comment with any questions, concerns, constructive criticisms, or information you would like to add to this subject. Docendo discimus, by teaching we learn.