ICLA Standard III: Study Session 3

In preparation of the Idaho Comprehensive Literacy Assessment (ICLA) Standard III, I am creating a series of blog posts from my study notes and the study guide. The subjects are organized in alphabetical order and I will be completing five subjects at a time. I am in hopes that by sharing, I can provide assistance to others studying for the ICLA or similar literacy tests for pre-service teachers.

Today's Subjects

Criterion-referenced measurement
the assessment of performance on a test in terms of the kind of behavior expected of a person with a given score

Reading Rockets states, "Criterion-referenced assessments are both formal and informal assessments, and are also used as diagnostic tools. The score compares the student’s skills to a defined set of skills and a goal (criterion) for mastery. These assessments are administered before instruction and after instruction to measure a student’s skill growth. An example of this type of test is the Core Phonics Survey. Usually these kinds of tests can be administered more than once a year."

A way to interpret a child’s performance by comparing his or her test score against a pre established criterion or benchmark. A good example is the written portion of the state driver’s examination. An examinee is permitted to miss a predetermined number of questions and still pass the exam. This criterion has nothing to do with how others performed on the same test. The comparison is between the individual driver and the criterion established by the Department of Motor Vehicles. 

Criterion-referenced tests are useful for mastery-level learning or competency-based assessment. A curriculum that consists of many specific skills to be learned is probably well served by a series of criterion referenced tests (one per skill). 

Cueing systems
any of the various sources of information that may aid identification of a word unrecognized at first glance, as phonics, structural analysis, semantic, and syntactic information

Children use three types of cues to recognize words—graphophonemic (letters and sounds), syntactic (part-of-speech), and semantic (meaning) information—and that effective word recognition involves the use of these three cueing systems

- Running records enable a teacher to notice which cueing systems a child is
using while reading connected text.

Curriculum-based assessment / Curriculum‑Based Measurements (CBM)
the appraisal of student progress by using materials and procedures directly from the curriculum taught
Reading Rockets describe CBM's, which teachers use on an ongoing basis to track students' progress toward annual goals, offers a number of benefits to parents and students, as well as teachers.

Curriculum-Based Measurement Procedures for Assessing and 
Scoring Oral Reading Fluency 

Say to the student: “When I say ‘start,’ begin reading aloud at the top of this page. Read across the page [demonstrate by pointing]. Try to read each word. If you come to a word you don’t know, I’ll tell it to you. Be sure to do your best reading. Are there any questions?” Say, “Start.” Follow along on your copy of the story, marking the words that are read incorrectly. If a student stops or struggles with a word for 3 seconds, tell the student the word and mark it as incorrect. Place a vertical line after the last word read and thank the student. 

The following guidelines determine which words are counted as correct: 
  1. Words read correctly are those words that are pronounced correctly, given the reading context. a. The word read must be pronounced reed, not as red, when presented in the context of “He will read the book.” b. Repetitions are not counted as incorrect. c. Self-corrections within 3 seconds are counted as correctly read words. 
  2. Words read incorrectly. The following types of errors are counted: (a) mispronunciations, (b) substitutions, and (c) omissions. Furthermore, words not read within 3 seconds are counted as errors. a. Mispronunciations are words that are misread: dog for dig. b. Substitutions are words that are substituted for the stimulus word; this is often inferred by a one-to-one correspondence between word orders: dog for cat. c. Omissions are words skipped or not read; if a student skips an entire line, each word is counted as an error.
  3. Three-second rule. If a student is struggling to pronounce a word or hesitates for 3 seconds, the student is told the word, and it is counted as an error.  Shinn (1989, pp. 239–240). Copyright 1989 by The Guilford Press.
Diagnostic assessments 
a test to analyze strengths and weaknesses in content-oriented skills
Diagnostic assessments pinpoint the needs of students so that small, flexible
groups can be formed for intensive instruction. The results of diagnostic assessments inform instruction and intervention.

Provide detailed information useful in planning instruction. These tests may involve multiple dimensions, possibly represented by subtests or by a variety of tasks a student is asked to perform. By the same token, a test designed to tell whether a student has mastered a particular objective is also an example of a diagnostic test because the result documents progress in terms specific enough to help in planning instruction. 

Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills (DIBELS) 
an early literacy screening instrument to determine children who may be at-risk for literacy problems. It is a series of short tests given to children in kindergarten through grade five to monitor and screen their progress in learning some of the necessary skills to become successful readers.

The DIBELS website (www.dibels.uoregon.edu) provides benchmark assessments, alternate forms for progress monitoring, and predictive data for evaluating students’ scores. All DIBELS Next instruments can be downloaded at no cost. DIBELS focuses on the five BIG IDEAS of early literacy:
  • Phonemic Awareness
  • Alphabetic Principle
  • Accuracy and Fluency with text
  • Vocabulary
  • Comprehension
In addition, I have created a Quizlet set of the vocabulary words found here. On Quizlet, I am very fond of playing the matching game where you can drag corresponding items (term to definition) onto each other to make them disappear. I also like to create a test on Quizlet with multiple choice, true or false, and matching to assess my knowledge of all the vocabulary words.

Good Luck!

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Thank you for reading my post. Please comment with any questions, concerns, constructive criticisms, or information you would like to add to this subject. Docendo discimus, by teaching we learn.